Frozen Evolution book

Most biologists and biology students think that evolutionary biology is basically a closed chapter of science. But what if this is not the way things are? What if evolutionary biology underwent a quite fundamental revolution in the 70's and 80's of the past century, following which all the textbooks in this field should basically be rewritten?  >> Read more

Frozen plasticity theory

This theory suggests a mechanism of the origin of adaptive traits in sexual organisms. The classical Darwinian mechanism of the origin of adaptive traits by natural selection can explain the evolution of such traits only under a very special situation, e.g., in a genetically homogeneous population of asexual organisms. The frozen plasticity theory is much more general: It can also explain the origin and evolution of adaptive traits in a genetically heterogeneous population of sexual organisms. >> Read more

Watch out for Toxo! The Secret Guide to Practical Science.

X. Of mice and men – why men are better (models)

We tried to test the original hypothesis, that Toxo positives give up earlier than Toxo negatives in a struggle, not only by using questionnaires given to people, but also by experimenting on animal models. However, when planning the latter, we committed a basic error. We planned to put together two male mice, one Toxo positive and the other Toxo negative, and observe which one of them first surrendered the fight. When two male mice, thus far kept separate, are put in the same cage, they begin fighting almost immediately. >> Read more

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