Scientific article

At the present time, scientific results are usually published in the form of a brief article in one of the many thousands of scientific journals. A scientific article usually consists of a brief Abstract summarizing the most important results, of an Introduction chapter, which is intended to describe the purpose of the study and place it in the broader context of the field, of a Results chapter, containing the uncommented results of the study (we measured this and that, the difference was/was not statistically significant), a Discussion chapter, stating what we think our results mean, how they agree or do not agree with knowledge to date and what follows from them. The article is usually ended with acknowledgement of people who contributed to completion of the study (but not enough to be included amongst the authors of the study) and of grant agencies that financed our research work, see Grants and grand reports, and also a list of references cited in the article, see Box References. Overall, an article (in the fields of biology) usually has 2000–6000 words and 3–6 graphs and tables, i.e. takes 4–12 pages in the journal.

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The classical Darwinian theory of evolution can explain the evolution of adaptive traits only in asexual organisms. The frozen plasticity theory is much more general: It can also explain the origin and evolution of adaptive traits in both asexual and sexual organisms Read more