Segregation of chromosomes during meiosis

The zygote, i.e. the cell formed by fusion of two parent gametes, bears two sets of chromosomes from the two parents. Random separation of chromosomes into the daughter cells occurs during nuclear division, mitosis and meiosis, so that each of these cells contains a unique genotype formed by mixing the chromosomes derived from the two parents. Simultaneously, the mechanism of nuclear division ensures that each of the cells obtains a complete set of chromosomes, i.e. one chromosome of each type of chromosome.

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The classical Darwinian theory of evolution can explain the evolution of adaptive traits only in asexual organisms. The frozen plasticity theory is much more general: It can also explain the origin and evolution of adaptive traits in both asexual and sexual organisms Read more