XIII.2 Sexual reproduction entails a number of disadvantagesand risks.

It is apparent that sexual reproduction has a number of disadvantages compared to asexual reproduction.It demands more time and energy and requires a more complicated molecular apparatus.It is frequently connected with gonochorism and then leads to the formation of nonproductive males.Sexual reproduction often requires physical contact between individuals within the population, which can not only be energy-intensive, but also hazardous from the standpoint of exposing the organism to the danger of parasitism.Finally, it also exposes the population to the risk of extinction if its density decreases below a certain limit.





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The classical Darwinian theory of evolution can explain the evolution of adaptive traits only in asexual organisms. The frozen plasticity theory is much more general: It can also explain the origin and evolution of adaptive traits in both asexual and sexual organisms Read more
Draft translation from: Evoluční biologie, 2. vydání (Evolutionary biology, 2nd edition), J. Flegr, Academia Prague 2009. The translation was not done by biologist, therefore any suggestion concerning proper scientific terminology and language usage are highly welcomed. You can send your comments to flegratcesnet [dot] cz. Thank you.