XXV.2 There are currently three basic methodical approaches for creating a taxonomic system: phenetic, cladistic and evolutionary systematic

At the present time, three basic methodical approaches are employed for the creation of a taxonomic system. The phenetic approach attempts to form a natural system of organisms on the basis of their mutual similarity. The cladistic approach tries to create a natural system exclusively on the basis of the genealogical relatedness of organisms, i.e. entirely on the basis of cladogenesis (Hennig 1966). Cladists originally called themselves phylogenetic systematists; however, over time, they came to accept the originally pejoratively intended term cladists and the term cladistics as a designation for their approach to phylogenetics and taxonomy. The evolutionary systematic approach, sometimes also called eclectic taxonomy, attempts  to encompass both aspects of phylogenesis and to create a system of taxa that fully respects the progress of cladogenesis and simultaneously reflects the progress of anagenesis, i.e. the mutual similarity of organisms.

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The classical Darwinian theory of evolution can explain the evolution of adaptive traits only in asexual organisms. The frozen plasticity theory is much more general: It can also explain the origin and evolution of adaptive traits in both asexual and sexual organisms Read more
Draft translation from: Evoluční biologie, 2. vydání (Evolutionary biology, 2nd edition), J. Flegr, Academia Prague 2009. The translation was not done by biologist, therefore any suggestion concerning proper scientific terminology and language usage are highly welcomed. You can send your comments to flegratcesnet [dot] cz. Thank you.