I BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION
Biological evolution is a long-term, spontaneously occurring process, during which living systems are formed or were formed singly from nonliving systems, and these living systems then develop and mutually diversify.
Evolutionary biology studies the properties of the process of biological evolution and its individual specific mechanisms. Systematic biology andpaleontology study the actual history of the progress of evolutionary processes in a specific space and time, i.e. the course of phylogenesis.
This chapter will be concerned with the basic characteristics of biological evolution. The greatest attention will be focused on those properties that differentiate it from other types of evolution, i.e. primarily the formation of adaptive traits through the action of natural selection.